Cracking the AWS Interview: Key Questions and Answers

Sep 22, 2023ยท

9 min read

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Table of contents


  • ๐Ÿ”ถ Name 5 aws services you have used and what are the use cases?

    1. EC2 (Elastic Compute Cloud): Virtual servers in the cloud, used for a wide range of computing tasks.

    2. RDS (Relational Database Service): Managed relational database service for various database engines.

    3. IAM (Identity and Access Management): Security service for controlling access to AWS resources.

    4. CloudWatch: Monitoring and observability service.

    5. S3 (Simple Storage Service): Object storage service for storing and retrieving data.

  • ๐Ÿ”ถ What are the tools used to send logs to the cloud environment?
    Sending logs to a cloud environment, particularly AWS (Amazon Web Services), often involves using various logging and monitoring tools and services. Here are some common tools and services used for log management in a cloud environment:

    1. CloudWatch Logs:
  • A service provided by AWS for monitoring, storing, and accessing log files.

  • Can collect logs from AWS resources, applications, and custom log files.

  • Allows you to set up log streams and log groups to organize log data.

  1. Amazon Kinesis Data Firehose:

    • Used for real-time data streaming.

    • Can collect, transform, and load log data to various AWS services, including Amazon S3, Amazon Redshift, and Amazon Elasticsearch.

  2. AWS Lambda:

    • Serverless computing service that can be used to process and forward logs.

    • Often used to trigger actions or alerts based on log data.

  3. Amazon S3 (Simple Storage Service):

    • Object storage service where log files can be stored.

    • Logs can be archived and analyzed later using various AWS services.

  4. Amazon Elasticsearch:

    • A managed Elasticsearch service that can be used for log aggregation, search, and visualization.

    • Often integrated with other services like Logstash and Kibana for the ELK (Elasticsearch, Logstash, Kibana) stack.

  5. Logstash:

    • Part of the ELK stack and used for log collection and processing.

    • Can parse, filter, and transform log data before sending it to Elasticsearch or other destinations.

  • ๐Ÿ”ถ What are IAM Roles? How do you create /manage them?
    IAM (Identity and Access Management) roles in AWS are a secure way to grant permissions to AWS resources, such as EC2 instances or Lambda functions, to access other AWS services or resources without the need for long-term credentials like access keys. IAM roles are used to delegate permissions securely.

    To create and manage IAM (Identity and Access Management) roles in AWS:

    1. Sign in to AWS Management Console.

    2. Navigate to IAM.

    3. Click "Roles" and then "Create role."

    4. Choose a use case (e.g., EC2), and attach policies.

    5. Review and create the role.

    6. Attach the role to AWS resources (e.g., EC2 instances).

    7. Modify permissions by editing the role's policies.

    8. AWS resources automatically use the attached role for permissions.

    9. IAM roles automatically rotate temporary credentials.

IAM roles enhance security by enabling fine-grained access control and eliminating long-term credentials.

  • ๐Ÿ”ถ How to upgrade or downgrade a system with zero downtime?
    Upgrading or downgrading a system with zero downtime typically involves implementing a rolling deployment strategy or a canary deployment. Here's a simplified process:

    Rolling Deployment:

    1. Prepare Multiple Instances: Ensure you have multiple instances (e.g., servers, containers) of your system running simultaneously.

    2. Upgrade/Downgrade One Instance: Take one instance offline and perform the upgrade/downgrade.

    3. Verify Health: Check if the upgraded/downgraded instance is healthy and operational.

    4. Switch Traffic: Redirect incoming traffic to the upgraded/downgraded instance.

    5. Repeat: Repeat steps 2-4 for each instance until all are upgraded/downgraded.

    6. Monitoring: Continuously monitor the system to ensure it's functioning as expected.

  • ๐Ÿ”ถ What is infrastructure as code and how do you use it?
    Infrastructure as Code (IaC) is an approach to managing and provisioning infrastructure resources using code and automation. In the context of AWS (Amazon Web Services), IaC allows you to define, configure, and manage AWS resources programmatically, rather than manually configuring them through the AWS Management Console. You can use IaC to create, modify, and delete AWS resources in a repeatable, consistent, and automated manner.

    You can use Infrastructure as Code (IaC) in AWS by selecting an IaC tool like AWS CloudFormation or Terraform, writing code to define your AWS resources, automating resource provisioning, version controlling your code, integrating it into your CI/CD pipeline, and using it for scaling, maintenance, documentation, collaboration, compliance, security, and monitoring. This approach ensures consistent, automated, and efficient management of AWS infrastructure.

  • ๐Ÿ”ถ What is a load balancer? Give scenarios of each kind of balancer based on your experience.
    A load balancer is a service that distributes incoming network traffic across multiple servers or resources to ensure the high availability and reliability of applications.

    There are several types of load balancers, each with its use cases:

    1. Network Load Balancer (NLB):

      • Scenario: NLBs are best suited for applications that require ultra-low latency, such as real-time gaming or voice-over-IP (VoIP) services.
    2. Application Load Balancer (ALB):

      • Scenario: ALBs are commonly used for modern web applications, as they can route traffic based on content (HTTP/HTTPS), making them ideal for routing requests to different services based on URLs or paths.
    3. Classic Load Balancer (CLB):

      • Scenario: CLBs are a legacy option and are typically used for applications that rely on the TCP/SSL protocol, such as older web applications or services.
    4. Internal Load Balancer:

      • Scenario: Internal Load Balancers are used when you want to expose a service to your internal network within AWS, without making it publicly accessible.
    5. Global Load Balancer:

      • Scenario: Global Load Balancers are used for distributing traffic across multiple AWS regions or globally. They ensure high availability and disaster recovery.
    6. DNS Load Balancer:

      • Scenario: DNS Load Balancers are used to route traffic based on geographic locations, ensuring users are directed to the nearest data center for improved performance.
    7. Layer 4 Load Balancer:

      • Scenario: Layer 4 Load Balancers are used when you need to balance traffic at the transport layer (TCP/UDP) for non-HTTP services.
    8. Layer 7 Load Balancer:

      • Scenario: Layer 7 Load Balancers, such as Application Load Balancers, are used for HTTP/HTTPS applications, where routing is based on content, URLs, or HTTP headers.
    9. SSL/TLS Offloading Load Balancer:

      • Scenario: These load balancers are used to offload SSL/TLS encryption and decryption from web servers, improving performance and reducing server load.
    10. Container Load Balancer:

      • Scenario: Container Load Balancers are designed for containerized applications managed by orchestration tools like Kubernetes. They help distribute traffic across container instances.

The choice of load balancer depends on your specific application requirements, including traffic volume, the type of application, and geographic distribution. AWS offers a range of load balancer types to accommodate various scenarios.

  • ๐Ÿ”ถ What is CloudFormation and why is it used?
    AWS CloudFormation is a service that allows you to define and provision AWS infrastructure as code using templates. It automates the creation, updating, and deletion of AWS resources.

    CloudFormation simplifies infrastructure management by enabling infrastructure as code, automating resource provisioning, ensuring consistency, and providing version control.

  • ๐Ÿ”ถ Difference between AWS CloudFormation and AWS Elastic Beanstalk?
    AWS CloudFormation is an infrastructure as code (IaC) service used for defining, provisioning, and managing AWS resources. It operates at a low level, allowing you to create and manage individual AWS resources through code templates. It's highly flexible and suited for complex infrastructure setups.

    AWS Elastic Beanstalk, on the other hand, is a Platform as a Service (PaaS) offering designed for simplifying application deployment. It abstracts infrastructure details, making it easy to deploy web applications and services. It's ideal for developers who want a quick and straightforward way to deploy web apps without managing infrastructure.

    CloudFormation is for fine-grained infrastructure control, while Elastic Beanstalk simplifies web app deployment. The choice depends on your need for control and complexity.

  • ๐Ÿ”ถ What are the kinds of security attacks that can occur on the cloud? And how can we minimize them?
    Common security attacks in the cloud include DDoS attacks, data breaches, insider threats, and malware.

    A combination of proactive security measures, monitoring, and employee training can help mitigate these threats in the cloud.

  • ๐Ÿ”ถ Can we recover the EC2 instance when we have lost the key?
    If we have lost the key pair associated with an EC2 instance in AWS, we cannot directly recover or reset the key pair for that instance. Key pairs are used for secure SSH access to the instance, and AWS cannot recover a lost private key.

    If you've lost the key pair for an AWS EC2 instance:

    1. Use another key pair if available.

    2. Utilize AWS Systems Manager (SSM) to access the instance.

    3. Resetting the key pair is possible but complex; consider it as a last resort.

    4. Contact AWS Support for assistance.

Always maintain proper key management practices to prevent key loss.

  • ๐Ÿ”ถ What is a gateway?
    A gateway is a network device or software application that connects two different networks, allowing them to communicate and share data. It acts as an intermediary or bridge between these networks, facilitating the exchange of information.

  • ๐Ÿ”ถ What is the difference between the Amazon Rds, Dynamodb, and Redshift?
    Amazon RDS, Amazon DynamoDB, and Amazon Redshift are all managed database services provided by AWS, but they serve different purposes and have distinct characteristics.

    Here's a brief comparison of these three AWS database services:

    1. Amazon RDS (Relational Database Service):

      • Database Type: Amazon RDS is a managed relational database service. It supports relational database engines like MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle, SQL Server, and MariaDB.

      • Use Cases: RDS is suitable for traditional relational database applications that require SQL querying, ACID compliance, and support for structured data.

      • Scaling: It provides vertical scaling (resizing compute and memory resources) and limited read replicas for scaling read operations.

    2. Amazon DynamoDB:

      • Database Type: DynamoDB is a managed NoSQL database service.

      • Use Cases: It's designed for applications that require high availability, fast and predictable performance, and seamless scaling. DynamoDB is ideal for web and mobile applications, gaming, IoT, and scenarios with semi-structured or unstructured data.

      • Scaling: It offers automatic horizontal scaling (adding more read and write capacity) based on demand.

    3. Amazon Redshift:

      • Database Type: Redshift is a managed data warehousing service.

      • Use Cases: Redshift is tailored for analytics and data warehousing workloads. It's optimized for querying and analyzing large datasets, making it suitable for business intelligence (BI) and reporting applications.

      • Scaling: Redshift can scale horizontally by adding more nodes to a cluster, improving query performance for complex analytical queries.

The key differences are in the database type, use cases, and scaling capabilities:

  • Amazon RDS is for traditional relational databases.

  • DynamoDB is for NoSQL databases that require high scalability.

  • Redshift is for data warehousing and analytics.

  • ๐Ÿ”ถ Do you prefer to host a website on S3? What's the reason if your answer is either yes or no?
    Yes, Hosting a Website on S3 can be preferred for Static Content, cost-effectiveness, Scalability, and S3 Features using Amazon CloudFront.

    If your website consists mainly of static content like HTML, CSS, JavaScript, images, and videos, Amazon S3 is an excellent choice. It's designed for storing and serving static files efficiently.

Happy Learning :)

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